CIRSMycotoxins/MVOCSColonisation/AllergyWDB & ERMIHLAChildrenMore Studies

Peer Reviewed Journal Papers (* non-peer reviewed)

  • Shoemaker R., McMahon S, Heyman, A., Lark, D, van der Westhuizen, M., & Ryan, J. (2021).Treatable metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities in Post COVID Syndrome (PCS) define the transcriptomic basis for persistent symptoms: Lessons from CIRS. Medical research archives, 9(7).
  • Shoemaker, R., Neil, V., Heyman, A., van der Westhuizen, M., McMahon, S. & Lark, D. (2021). Newer Molecular Methods Bring New Insights into Human- And Building-Health Risk Assessments from Water-Damaged Buildings: Defining Exposure and Reactivity, the Two Sides of Causation of CIRS-WDB Illness. Medical research archives, 9(3), 1-36.
  • Schrantz, M., Banta, J., Charlton, J., Heiblum, J., Johnson, K., McMahon, S., Schwartz, L., Weatherman, G., Weber, B., Vukelic, A., Shoemaker, R. (2021). Indoor Environmental Professional Panel of Surviving Mold Consensus Statement for Microbial Remediation 2020. Medical Research Archives, 9(1), 1-25.
  • Shoemaker, R.C. (2020). Metabolism, molecular hypometabolism and inflammation: Complications of proliferative physiology include metabolic acidosis, pulmonary hypertension, T reg cell deficiency, insulin resistance and neuronal injury. Trends diabetes metab., 3,1-15.
  • Dooley, M. & McMahon, S.W. (2020). A comprehensive review of mold research literature from 2011 – 2018. Internal medicine review, 6(1).
  • *Shoemaker, R.C. & Lark, D. (2019). Urinary Mycotoxins: A Review of Contaminated Buildings and Food in Search of a Biomarker Separating Sick Patients from Controls. Internal medicine review, 5(6). PDFTownsend letter #438
  • *Shoemaker, R.C., Lark, D. & Ryan, J.C. (2019). Moldy Buildings, CIRS, Sick People, and Damaged Brains, Parts 1-5. Townsend letter, #432 (Part 1), #433 (Part 2), #435 (Part 3), #436 (Part 4), #437 (Part 5)
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Johnson, K., Lysander, J., Berry, Y., Dooley, M., Ryan, J. & McMahon, S. (2018). Diagnostic process for chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS): A consensus statement report of the consensus committee of surviving mold. Internal medicine review, (6)5 May 2018
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Heyman, A., Mancia, A. & Ryan, J.C. (2017). Inflammation Induced Chronic Fatiguing Illnesses: A steady march towards understanding mechanisms and identifying new biomarkers and therapies. Internal medicine review, (3)10. | PDF
  • McMahon, S, Kundomal, K. & Yangalasetty, S. (2017). Pediatrics Norms for Visual Contrast Sensitivity Using an APT VCS Tester. Medical research archives, 5(5) May 2017.
  • McMahon, S. (2017). An Evaluation of Alternate Means to Diagnose Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Determine Prevalence. Medical research archives, 5(3), March 2017.
  • Shoemaker, R., Katz, D., Ackerley, M., Rapaport, S., McMahon, S., Berndtson, K. & Ryan, J. (2017). Intranasal VIP safely restores volume to multiple grey matter nuclei in patients with CIRS. Internal medicine review, (3)4.
  • Ryan, J.C. & Shoemaker. R.C. (2016). RNA-Seq on patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) treated with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) shows a shift in metabolic state and innate immune functions that coincide with healing. Medical research archives, 4(7).
  • Gunn, S.R., Gunn, G.G. & Mueller, F.W. (2016).  Reversal of refractory ulcerative colitis and severe chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms arising from immune disturbance in an HLA-DR/DQ genetically susceptible individual with multiple biotoxin exposures. American journal of case reports, 2016(17), 320–325. PMID 27165859 PMC4913732
  • McMahon, S.W., Shoemaker, R.C. & Ryan, J.C. (2016). Reduction in forebrain parenchymal and cortical grey matter swelling across treatment groups in patients with inflammatory illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Journal of neuroscience and clinical research, 2016, 1(1).
  • Bredesen D.E. (2016). Inhalational Alzheimer’s disease: an unrecognized – and treatable – epidemic. Aging, 8(2), 304-13. PMID 26870879
  • Schwartz, L., Weatherman, G., Schrantz, M., Spakes, W., Charlton, J., Berndtson, K. & Shoemaker, R. (2016). Indoor environmental professionals panel of surviving mold – consensus statement. | Full text
  • Ryan, J.C., Wu, Q., & Shoemaker, R.C. (2015). Transcriptomic signatures in whole blood of patients who acquire a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) following an exposure to the marine toxin ciguatoxin. BMC med genomics, (8)15.  PMID 25889530
  • *Berndtson, K., McMahon, S., Ackerley, M., Rapaport, S., Gupta, S. & Shoemaker, R.C. (2015). Medically sound investigation and remediation of water-damaged buildings in cases of CIRS-WDB – Consensus statement – Pt 1. Center for research on biotoxin associated illnesses. PDF
  • *Schwartz, L., Weatherman, G., Schrantz, M., Spakes, W., Charlton, J., Berndtson, K. & Shoemaker, R. (2016). Indoor environmental professionals panel of surviving mold – consensus statement. PDF
  • *Shoemaker, R., McMahon, S., Ryan, J., Ackerley, M., DiTulio, M., Berndtson, B., Heyman, A. & Jaffe, R. (2015). Correlation of volumetric brain imaging with Western blot testing for Lyme Disease. Poster session. NorVect conference, 2015. PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2014). Structural brain abnormalities in patients with inflammatory illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings: A volumetric MRI study using NeuroQuant. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 45, 18-26. PMID 24946038 | PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2013). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) corrects chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Health, 5(3) 2013, 396-401.
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2010). Defining the neurotoxin derived illness chronic ciguatera using markers of chronic systemic inflammatory disturbances: a case/control study. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 32(6), 633-9. PMID 20685390 | PDF
  • *Shoemaker, R.C. & Maziel, M.S. (2009). Exposure to interior environments of water-damaged buildings causes a CFS-like illness in pediatric patients: a case/control study. Bulletin of the IACFS/ME 2009, 17(2).  PDF
  • *Shoemaker, R.C. & Maizel, M. (2008). Innate immunity, MR spectroscopy, HLA DR, TGF beta-1, VIP and capillary hypoperfusion define acute and chronic human illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. International healthy buildings. PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Giclas, P, Crowder, C, House, D.E., & Glovsky, M. (2008).  Complement split products C3a and C4a are early markers of acute lyme disease in tick bite patients in the United States. International archives of allergy and immunology, 146(3), 255-61. PMID 18270493 | PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Hudall, H.K., House, D.E., Van Kempen, A., & Pakes, G. (2006). Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment. Advances in therapy, 23(1), 1-11. PMID 16644602 | PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C., & House, D.E. (2006). Sick building syndrome (SBS) and exposure to water-damaged buildings: time series study, clinical trial and mechanisms. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 28(5), 573-88. PMID 17010568  | PDF
  • Hudnell, H.K. (2005). Chronic biotoxin-associated illness: multiple-system symptoms, a vision deficit, and effective treatment. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 27(5), 733-43. PMID: 16102938
  • Shoemaker, R.C. & House, D.E. (2004). A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic, biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 27(1), 29-46. PMID 15681119 | PDF
  • *Shoemaker, S., Rash, J. & Simon, E. (2003). Sick building syndrome in water damaged buildings: generalization of the chronic biotoxin-associated illness paradigm to indoor toxigenic-fungi exposure. Bioaerosols, fungi, bacteria, mycotoxins and human health. Johanning, E (editor). PDF
  • Shoemaker, R.C. (2001). Residential and recreational acquisition of possible estuary-associated syndrome: a new approach to successful diagnosis and treatment. Environmental health perspectives, 109 (suppl. 5), 791-6. PMID 11677191 PMC1240613
  • *Shoemaker, R.C., Hudnell K.H., House, D.E. & Domenico, P. (2003). Association of nasal carriage of methicillin resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase negative staphylococci species with deficiency of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: implication for expanded treatment options. American society of microbiology, 2003. PDF
  • *Shoemaker, R.C. (2003). Linkage disequilibrium in alleles of HLA DR: differential association with susceptibility to chronic illness following exposure to biologically produced neurotoxins. American society of microbiology. 2003. PDF
  • Grattan, L.M., Oldach, D., Perl, T.M., Lowitt, M.H., Matuszak, D.L., Dickson, C., Parrott,  C., Shoemaker, R.C., Kauffman, C.L,  Wasserman, M.P., Hebel, J.R., Charache, P. & Morris Jr, J.G. (1998). Learning and memory difficulties after environmental exposure to waterways containing toxin-producing Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates. Lancet, 353(9127):532-9. | PDF


  • Shoemaker, R., McMahon, S. & Heyman, A. (2020). The art and science of CIRS medicine. Surviving Mold.
  • Shoemaker, R. (2014). State of the art answers to 500 mold questions. Amazon Aus | US
  • Shoemaker, R. (2010). Surviving mold: Life in the era of dangerous buildings. Amazon Aus) | US
  • Shoemaker, R. (2005). Mold Warriors: Fighting America’s hidden health threat. Amazon Aus | US
  • Shoemaker, R. (2001). Desperation Medicine. Amazon Aus | US
  • Berry, Y. (2014). A physician’s guide to understanding & treating biotoxin illness. Surviving mold.


  • Shoemaker, R., & Ryan, J. (2014). US Patent No. 20,140,046,143 A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Google patents
  • Shoemaker, R., & Hudnell, H. (2003). Us Patent No. 20,030,219,400 A1. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Google patents

Complete Works

  • Visit Surviving Mold for the complete library of scientific papers authored or co-authored by Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker.

General (Thrasher, Hope et al)

  • Campbell, A.W., Thrasher, J.D., Gray, M.R. & Vojandi, A. (2004). Mold and Mycotoxins: Effects on the Neurological and Immune Systems in Humans. Advances in applied microbiology, 55, 375-406. PMID 15350803PDF
  • Gray, M., Thrasher, J., Crago, R., Madison, R., Arnold, L., Campbell, W. & Vojdani, A. (2003). Mixed mold mycotoxicosis: immunological changes in humans following exposure in water-damaged buildings. Archives of environmental health, 58(7), 410-420. PMID 15143854
  • Guilford, F.T. & Hope, J. (2014). Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness. Toxins, 6(2), 608–623. doi:  10.3390/toxins6020608 PMID PMC3942754
  • Morris, G., Berk, M., Walder, K. & Maes, M. (2015).The putative role of viruses, bacteria, and chronic fungal biotoxin exposure in the genesis of intractable fatigue accompanied by cognitive and physical disability. Molecular neurobiology. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9262-7 PMID 26081141PDF
  • Hope, J. (2013). A Review of the mechanism of injury and treatment approaches for illness resulting from exposure to water damaged buildings, mold, and mycotoxins. The scientific world journal, 2013. PDF
  • Hooper, D., Bolton, V., Guilford, F. & Straus, D. (2009). Mycotoxin detection in human samples from patients exposed to environmental molds. International journal of molecular sciences, 10(4), 1465–75. doi: 10.3390/ijms10041465 PMID 19468319
  • Thrasher, J.D. (2016). Fungi, bacteria, nano-particulates, mycotoxins and human health in water-damaged indoor environments. Journal of community and public health nursing 2016, 2(2). PDF


  • Bennett, J.W. & Inamdar, A.A. (2015). Are some fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mycotoxins? Toxins, 7(9), 3785-804. doi: 10.3390/toxins7093785 PMID 26402705
  • Betancourt, D., Krebs, K., Moore, S. & Martin, S. (2013). Microbial volatile organic compound emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile. BMC microbiology, 13, 283. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-283 PMID PMC4234204
  • Hokeness, K., Kratch, J., Nadolny, C., Aicardi, K., Reid, C.W. (2014). The effects of fungal volatile organic compounds on bone marrow stromal cells. Canadian journal of microbiology, 60(1),1-4. doi: 10.1139/cjm-2013-0708 PMID 24392920
  • Korpi, A., Järnberg, J. & Pasanen, A. (2009). Microbial volatile organic compounds. Critical reviews in toxicology, 39(2), 139-193.  doi: 10.1080/10408440802291497 PMID 19204852


  • Brewer, J., Hooper, D. & Muralidhar, S. (2015). Intranasal antifungal therapy in patients with chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: an observational analysis. Global journal of medical research: K interdisciplinary, 15(1). PDF
  • Brewer, J., Thrasher, J. & Hooper, D. (2013). Chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: is naso-sinus fungal biofilm the culprit? Toxins, 24, 6(1), 66-80. doi: 10.3390/toxins6010066  PMID 24368325
  • Brewer, J., Thrasher, J., Straus, D., Madison, R. & Hooper, D. (2013). Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Toxins, 11, 5(4), 605-17. doi: 10.3390/toxins5040605 PMID 23580077

Chronic Rhinosinusitis

  • Feazel, L. M., Robertson, C. E., Ramakrishnan, V. R., & Frank, D. N. (2012). Microbiome Complexity and Staphylococcus aureus in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.The Laryngoscope, 122(2), 467–472. doi: PMID PMC3398802


  • Edmondson, D., Barrios, C., Brasel, T., Straus, D., Kurup V., & Fink J. (2009). Immune response among patients exposed to molds. International journal of molecular sciences, 12, 5471-84. doi: 10.3390/ijms10125471 PMID 20054481
  • Adams, R., Miletto, M., Taylor, J. & Bruns, T. (2013). The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces. PLoS One, 8(11), e78866.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078866 PMID PMC3815347
  • Andersen, B., Dosen, I., Lewinska, A.M. & Nielsen, K.F. Pre-contamination of new gypsum wallboard with potentially harmful fungal species. Indoor air, 31 March 2016. doi: 10.1111/ina.12298 PMID 26970063
  • Andersen, B., Frisvad, J., Søndergaard, I., Rasmussen, I. & Larsen, L. (2011). Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials. Applied and environmental microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02513-10  PMID PMC3131638
  • Chester, A.C. & Levine, P.H. (1994). Concurrent sick building syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome: epidemic neuromyasthenia revisited. Clinical infectious diseases, 18 Suppl 1:S43-8, PMID 8148452
  • Cho, S.J., Cox-Ganser, J.M. & Park, J.H. (2016). Observational scores of dampness and mold associated with measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools. Indoor Air, 26(2), 168-178. doi: doi:10.1111/ina.12191 PMID 25650175
  • Dewsbury, M. & Law. T. (2017). Temperate Climates, Warmer Houses and Built Fabric Challenges. Procedia Engineering, 180, 2017, 1065-1074 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.266
  • Haleem Khan AA1, Mohan Karuppayil S.. (2012). Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi journal biological sciences, 19(4):405-26. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.06.002 PMID 23961203Kettleson, E.M., Adhikari, A., Vesper, S., Coombs, K., Indugula, R. & Reponen, T. (2015). Key determinants of the fungal and bacterial microbiomes in homes. Environmental research, 2015 April, 138, 130-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.003 PMID 25707017
  • Shoemaker, R.C. & Lark, D. (2016). HERTSMI-2 and ERMI: Correlating Human Health Risk with Mold Specific qPCR in Water-Damaged Buildings. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, International Society for Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Ghent, Belguim. PDF
  • Vesper, S. (2011). Traditional mould analysis compared to a DNA-based method of mould analysis. Critical reviews in microbiology, 37(1), 15-24. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2010.506177 PMID 20874612, Full Text
  • Vesper, S., Wakefield, J., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Friedman, W. (2011). Geographic distribution of Environmental Relative Moldiness Index molds in USA homes. Journal of environmental and public health, 2011, 242457, doi: 10.1155/2011/242457 PMID 21776436
  • Vesper, S., McKinstry, C., Bradham, K., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Lin, K. (2009). Screening tools to estimate mold burdens in homes. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 51(1), 80-6.  doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31818dc41e PMID 19136876
  • Vesper, S., McKinstry, C., Haugland, R., Wymer, L., Bradham, K., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Friedman, W. (2007). Development of an Environmental Relative Moldiness index for US homes. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 49(8), 829-33. PMID 17693779

Lyme (HLA DR4/4-3-53)

  • Gross, D.M., Forsthuber, T., Tary-LehmanM., Etling, C., Ito, K., Nagy, Z.A., Field, J.A., Steere, A.C. & Huber, B.T. Identification of LFA-1 as a candidate autoantigen in treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Science, 281(5377),703-6, PMID 9685265
  • Kalish, R.A., Leong, J.M., & Steere, A.C. (1993). Association of treatment-resistant chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-DR4 and antibody reactivity to OspA and OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection and immunity, 61(7):2774-9 PMID 7685738
  • Nigorivc, L.E., & Thompson, K.M. (2007). The Lyme vaccine: a cautionary tale. Epidemiology and infection, 131(5), PMID PMC2870557
  • Steere, A.C., Klitz, W., Drouin, E.E., Falk, B.A., Kwok, W.W., Nepom, G.T. & Baxter-Lowe, L.A. (2006). Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is associated with HLA-DR molecules that bind a Borrelia burgdorferi peptide. The journal of experimental medicine, 203(4),961-71, PMID 16585267
  • Steere, A.C., Gross, D., Meyer, A.L. & Huber, B.T. (2001). Autoimmune mechanisms in antibiotic treatment-resistant lyme arthritis. Journal of autoimmunity, 16(3),263-8,  PMID 11334491


  • Knutsen, A.P., Vijay, H.M., Kariuki, B., Santiago, L.A., Graff, R., Wofford, J.D. & Shah, M.R.. (2010) Association of IL-4RA single nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma. Clinical and molecular allergy, 18(8), 5:5, doi: 10.1186/1476-7961-8-5 PMID 20298583
  • Knutsen, A.P., Vijay, H.M., Kumar, V., Kariuki, B., Santiago, L.A., Graff, R., Wofford, J.D. & Shah, M.R.. (2010). Mold-sensitivity in children with moderate-severe asthma is associated with HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Allergy, 65(11), 1367-75, doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02382.x PMID 20486920
  • Makhatadze, N.J., Pocino, M., Granja, C. & Yunis, E. (1999). Immunogenetics of atopic asthma: association of DRB1*1101 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 haplotype with Dermatophagoides spp.-sensitive asthma in a sample of the Venezuelan population. Clinical and experimental allergy, 29(1), 69-71, PMID 10051703
  • Schubert, M.S., Hutcheson, P.S., Graff, R.J., Santiago, L. & Slavin, R.G. (2004). HLA-DQB1 *03 in allergic fungal sinusitis and other chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis disorders. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 114(6), 1376-83, PMID 15577839


A preliminary list of studies on the multisystem effects of mould and other biotoxin formers on children is linked below:

More Studies

TMSA are currently building a database of studies relevant to CIRS. You can find an incomplete list of peer-reviewed studies, reviews, and critiques (over 300) linked below:


  • Albrecht, E.A. & Ward, P.A. (2004). Complement-induced impairment of the innate immune system during sepsis. Current allergy and asthma reports, 4(5),359-64. PMID 15283874
  • Hass, P.J. & van Strijp, J. (2007). Anaphylatoxins: their role in bacterial infection and inflammation. Immunological research, 37(3),161-75. PMID 17873401
  • Hawksworth, O.A., Li, X.X., Coulthard, L.G., Wolvetang, E.J & Woodruff, T.M. (2017). New concepts on the therapeutic control of complement anaphylatoxin receptors. Molecular immunology, 2017 (89),36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.05.015 PMID 28576324
  • Bennett, S., Grant, M., Creese, A.J., Mangialasche, F., Cecchetti, R., Cooper, H.J., Mecocci, P. & Aldred, S. Plasma levels of complement 4a protein are increased in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease and associated disorders, 26(4), 329-34. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e318239dcbd PMID 22052466
  • Nijs, .J, Nees, A., Paul, L., De Kooning, M., Ickmans, K., Meeus, M. & Van Oosterwijck, J. (2014). Altered immune response to exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic literature review. Exercise immunological review, 20,94-116. PMID 24974723
  • Pągowska-Klimek, I., Świerzko, A.S., Michalski, M., Głowacka, E., Szala-Poździej, A., Sokołowska, A., Moll, M., Krajewski, W.R., Romak, J. & Cedzyński, M. (2015). Activation of the lectin pathway of complement by cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after pediatric cardiac surgery. Clinical and experimental immunology. doi: 10.1111/cei.12763 PMID 26703090
  • Panelius, J. & Meri, S. (2015). Complement system in dermatological diseases – fire under the skin. Frontiers in medicine, 29(2), 3, doi: 10.3389/fmed.2015.00003 PMID 25688346
  • Tatomir, A., Talpos-Caia, Al, Ansselmo, F., Kruszewski, A.M., Boodhoow, D., Rus, V. & Rus, H. (2017). The complement system as a biomarker of disease activity and response to treatment in multiple sclerosis. Immunological research, 65(6),1103-1109. doi: 10.1007/s12026-017-8961-8 PMID 29116612
  • Hornig, .1, Montoya, J.G,, Klimas, N.G., Levine, S., Felsenstein, D., Bateman, L., Peterson, D.L., Gottschalk, C.G., Schultz, A.F., Che ,X., Eddy, M.L., Komaroff, A.L. & Lipkin, W.I. (2015). Distinct plasma immune signatures in ME/CFS are present early in the course of illness. Science advances, 2015 Feb;1(1). pii: e1400121. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400121 PMID 26079000
  • Kwon, O., Kim, K.W. & Kim, M.S.. (2016). Leptin signalling pathways in hypothalamic neurons. Cellular and molecular life sciences, Jan 19, 1-21. PMID 26786898
  • Milaneschi, Y., Lamers, F., Bot, M., Drent, M.L. & Penninx, B.W. (2015). Leptin dysregulation is specifically associated with major depression with atypical features: evidence for a mechanism connecting obesity and depression. Biological psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.10.023 PMID 26742925
  • Stringer, E.A., Baker, K.S., Carroll, I.R., Montoya, J.G., Chu, L, Maecker, H.T. & Younger, J.W. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology. Journal of translation medicine, 16(5), 583-9. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-93 PMID PMC3637529
  • Metcalf, L., McGregor, N. & Roberts, T.(2004). Membrane damaging toxins from coagulase-negative staphylococcus are associated with self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of chronic fatigue syndrome, 12(3) 25-43. doi: 10.1300/J092v12n03_03
  • Richards, R., McGregor, N. & Roberts, T. (2004). Association between oxidative damage markers and self-reported temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of chronic fatigue syndrome, 12(3), 45-51. doi: 0.1300/J092v12n03_04
  • Colombo, G., Buffa, R., Bardella, M.T., Garofalo, L., Carlin, A., Lipton, J.M. & Catania, A. (2003). Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in celiac intestinal mucosa. Neuroimmunomoudlation, 10(4),208-16. PMID 12584408
  • Singh, M. & Mukophadhyay, K. (2014). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone – an emerging anti-inflammatory antimicrobial peptide (Review). BioMed research international, 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/874610 PMID 25140322
  • Taylor, A.W & Namba, K. (2001). In vitro induction of CD25+CD4+regulatory T cells by the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a MSH). Immunology and cell biology, 79(4), 358–367. PMID 11488983
  • Varadi, J., Harazin, A., Fenyvesis, F., Reti-Nagay, K., Gogolak, P., Vamosis, G., et al. (2017). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone protects against cytokine-induced barrier damage in caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers. PLoS One, 12(1), e0170537. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170537. PMID PMC5245816
  • Bauer, A.T., Burgers, H.F., Tamer Rabie, T. & Marti, H.H. (2010). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates hypoxia-induced vascular leakage in the brain via tight junction rearrangement. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism, 30(4), 837-848. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.248 PMID PMC2949161
  • Yan, A., Yan R., Spinale, F., Afzal, R., Gunasinghe, H., Arnold, M., Demers, C., McKelvie, R. & Liu, P. (2006). Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 level is correlated with left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in patients with heart failure. Journal of cardiac failure, 12(7), 514-19. PMID 16952784
  • Almeida, O.P., Burton E.J., McKeith, I., Gholkar, A., Burn, D. & O’Brien J.T. (2003). MRI study of caudate nucleus volume in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia with lewy Bodies and alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 16(2), 57–63. doi: 10.1159/000070676
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